Graphene with Unique Proprieties & Application Prospects

  • Stable structure, high strength.
  • Excellent electrical & thermal conductivity.
  • Exhibit good solubility in non-polar solutions.
Graphene structure after magnification
Description

The term graphene is derived from graphite and the naming suffix of alkenes (ene), indicating an atomic-scale network that the single atomic layer of carbon extended endlessly. That is, a single layer of graphite sheet, which is a two-dimensional carbon material and is a basic unit of various carbon allotropes such as graphene, charcoal, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc. Besides, it is also a general term for single-layer graphene, double-layer graphene, and few-layer graphene. In fact, a single layer or a few layers of carbon atoms (graphene layer) can be called graphene. Graphene is currently the thinnest material artificially produced in the world, with a thickness of a single carbon atom only 0.335 nm.

Perfect graphene has an ideal two-dimensional crystal structure composed of hexagonal lattices. Each carbon atom is connected to three other carbon atoms through a strong σ covalent bond, forming a strong C-C bond. Moreover, each carbon atom contributes a non-boding л electron, and these л electrons form a л orbital perpendicular to the plane. These л electrons can move freely in the crystal, endowing graphene with excellent mechanical strength and conductivity. Therefore, graphene is a two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial consisting of carbon atoms in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice with sp2 hybrid orbitals.

Graphene materials refer to graphene-related two-dimensional carbon materials with no more than 10 carbon atom layers, including single-layer graphene, double-layer graphene, few-layer graphene, graphene, single-layer graphene oxide, graphene oxide, single-layer reduced graphene oxide, reduced graphene, and functionalized graphene.

Graphene and graphene-related materials are widely used in battery electrode materials, semiconductor devices, transparent displays, sensors, capacitors, transistors, etc. Given the excellent properties of graphene materials and their potential applications, a series of significant advances have been made in a wide range of disciplines, including chemistry, materials science, physics, biology, environmental science and energy.

Properties
  • Stable Structure
    It has a stable crystal structure with a C-C bond length of 0.142 nm.
  • Mechanical Properties
    It is one of the strongest materials known and has good toughness. It has a theoretical Young's modulus of 1.0 TPa and an intrinsic tensile strength of 130 GPa.
  • Electronic Effect
    It has a carrier mobility of about 15,000 cm2/(V·s) at room temperature, which is dozens of times higher than that of conventional semiconductor silicon materials.
  • Thermal Conductivity
    Theoretically defect-free pure single-layer graphene has a thermal conductivity of up to 5300 W/mK. When used as a carrier., it has a thermal conductivity of up to 600 W/mK
  • Optical Properties
    It has an absorption of about 2.3% across a wide range of wavelengths, and appears almost transparent.
  • Solubility
    It exhibits good solubility in non-polar solutions, and has superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties.
  • Melting Point
    Its melting point was estimated to be around 4125 K in a 2015 study, although other research suggests it may be closer to 5000 K.
  • Chemical Properties
    Chemically, it is similar to graphite and can adsorb and desorb various atoms and molecules.
  • Biocompatiblity
    Implanting carboxylate ions can make the surface of graphene material possess active functional groups, thus significantly improving the material's cell and biological response activity.
  • Addition Reaction
    The double bond on graphene can be used to join the required groups through addition reaction.